Retaining walls are commonly used in Perth particularly on residential subdivisions and land development. If the construction is undertaken in accordance with the certified structural engineering documentation, there will be no issues with the performance or durability of the retaining wall. However, if even minor structural engineering details are omitted during construction it can lead to costly rectification works.
Visible leaning or bulging in a retaining wall can indicate early signs of serviceability or structural failure. If the retaining wall is supporting additional structures such as a house, the consequences of structural failure can be significant. If you are concerned about leaning or cracks in a retaining wall, you should engage a professional structural engineer to inspect and to provide a written report in relation to its structural adequacy. As an example, common modes of failure for cantilever pole retaining walls (such as concrete panel and post) are as follows:
When designing and building a retaining wall, there are a variety of design options and materials to consider. Depending on the application, site condition and budget it is important to consider the construction methodology that would work best for the site.
Before designing the retaining wall & confirming the type (concrete panel and post, limestone retaining wall, mass brick et cetera), it is important to assess the location and environmental factors that could have an adverse effect on the retaining wall.
Building a retaining wall takes advanced planning and careful layout to reduce cracking and ensure long term performance.
This article will explore some of the factors that need to be considered early in the design phase along with guidance on choosing the best type of retaining wall for your project.
Check with your local council
It is recommended that the local council is approached initially for design regulations prior to the construction. Depending on the specific requirements, the council will advise if retaining walls higher than 500mm and walls located near surcharge loading such as a house or a roadway be designed and certified by a professional structural engineer. In some circumstances, if a retaining wall is constructed without council approval, a structural engineer inspection would be required in order to obtain a retrospective building approval.
Confirm location of existing services
When choosing a location for your wall, ensure that you have a detailed understanding of property lines and both above ground and underground utilities including stormwater management systems and reticulation. If you are using a professional structural engineer, it is standard practice to consider the location of the sewer line and as a precaution, a Dial Before You Dig enquiry should be submitted by the builder.
Consider drainage requirements
Depending on the wall size and height, a retaining wall can impede on natural drainage patterns and have environmental consequences downstream. Surcharge Loads need to be considered by the structural engineer. This would involve a compliance check with the relevant Australian Standards and assess if additional loading from fencing, guardrails, driveways, parking lots, or swimming pool needs to be factored into the designs. Loading from temporary construction equipment also needs to be considered.
A soil classification is required for common footing types - stump pads, strip, slabs that are often used in most housing construction. The soil that creates the foundation, or base, needs to be examined to ensure that it meets the strength required to support the wall. The soil classification will confirm if the soil is sand or clay which can have various levels of reactivity to moisture changes. The design and construction of retaining walls will be impacted by the soil classification. On clay sites, additional requirements are needed to ensure that the the retaining wall performs well with moisture changes.
Subject to council requirements, after the building permit is obtained and consideration is given to aspects such as health and safety, structural engineering, environmental and heritage requirements in line with the local government and Building Code of Australia, the retaining wall can be constructed.
It is very important that compaction of the soil is checked before construction. For sand sites compaction is checked with a Perth Sand Penetrometer (PSP).
In some cases, the local shire or council will require a compaction test certificate. Engaging a professional structural engineering to undertake a compaction testing prior to the construction of the retaining wall is prudent. In our experience, we have encountered instances were the failure of the retaining wall was attributed to poor compaction.
Let’s take a look at some common retaining walls used in the Perth area:
Small retaining walls - up to 800mm
For small retaining walls there are a variety of proprietary products on the market design is ideal for low, vertical landscaping walls in garden and communal areas. It is often used to separate and highlight entertaining areas, BBQ areas, paths, garden beds, hedges, or to create and differentiate levels. A range of retaining wall blocks can be found at hardware stores or specialist brick manufacturers.
Concrete pre-cast panel and post retaining walls - up to 3000mm
These types of retaining walls are widely used throughout Perth and the South West. A panel and post concrete retaining wall is in most cases an economical alternative to brick and limestone retaining walls. Often these types of retaining walls are installed along boundaries and they must be constructed in a way that prevents encroaching the neighbouring property unless consent if obtained in writing from the adjoining landowner.
These types of walls are generally quick to install and can perform quite well in sand sites provided that adequate compaction is achieved. Additional considerations will apply if existing structures are close to the walls or if the construction is to take place in reactive clay site.
Limestone Retaining Walls – up to approx. 8000mm
Limestone retaining walls are typically constructed from natural or reconstituted blocks which are 350mm x 350mm x 1000mm long. This is essentially a type of gravity retaining wall and are become very popular in the Perth Region due to the availability of materials. Essentially these retaining walls use their own weight to hold the soil behind them. A cross-fall or a lean toward the soil being retained is a standard practice that counteracts any deviation from verticality that may occur over time.
Advantages of limestone retaining walls include long durability, easy maintenance and there is a range of colours and finishes. Form a structural engineering perspective, a major advantage is that the limestone retaining walls can be economically designed to withstand structures such as residential building or swimming pool either on top of the wall or in close proximity. It is recommended that a compaction test certificate is obtained before constructing the retaining wall and that the wall is inspected by a structural engineer before back-filling.
During pre purchase structural building inspections, it is not uncommon to find retaining walls that are in a state of failure or serviceability failure (for example when a retaining wall is leaning and exceeds the required tolerances). We have extensive expertise in designing, supervising construction and inspecting various types of retaining walls.
As always, if you are purchasing a home in Perth, it is essential to engage a qualified building inspector such as a structural engineer to undertake a pre purchase structural inspection to provide a written report and to determine if any structural issues are present. Our team is looking forward to assisting you with certified structural engineering details & structural building inspections in Perth & the South West. .
Rotaru Building Consultants
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